Source: "The True Culture of Africa and Africans," The Black Panther, 17 February 1969, 15-17.


February 17, 1969. Pages 15-17.


[A picture, with the caption:]

Patrice Lumumba, martyred leader of the revolutionary struggle in the Congo was a victim of capitalist inspired violence and terrorism in an attempt to stem the tide of the African Revolution. Lumumba is seated here in a jeep, hands bound, just prior to his assassination.

Today the revolutionary people of Congo (K), Mozambique, Angola, Guinea (Bissau), Zimbabwe and other places are carrying on life-and-death armed struggles against imperialism and its lackeys. Some of them have already established rural revolutionary base areas, while others are intensifying their armed activities and dealing powerful blows at the enemy.

The Congo (K) declared its independence in 1960. U.S. imperialism, hand in glove with Soviet revisionism, hastily sent in U.S.-controlled aggressive armed forces under the flag of "The United Nations troops". The countless crimes of these aggressive troops include suppressing the patriotic forces, murdering the national hero Lumumba, subverting the legitimate government and installing a puppet regime. During those days of grave national disaster, patriotic armed forces of Kwilu in the western part of the Congo (K) kindled the fire of patriotic armed struggle against the U.S. imperialists and their puppets. Burning furiously, its flames spread to the northeastern and eastern parts of the country. While summing up their experiences and lessons in the last year and more, some leaders of the patriotic armed forces have come to realize the important significance of establishing a revolutionary political party, an army and a united front led by the revolutionary political party. Now, the patriotic armed forces have established revolutionary political power on the western front and expanded the struggle to the east and south of the base area.

Since launching an armed uprising in September 1964, the people of Mozambique have set up active base areas in two northern provinces and launched a struggle in a province in the northwest. They make frequent attacks on isolated strongholds of the enemy while constantly ambushing enemy patrols. Since the beginning of this year, the freedom fighters have been consistently winning new victories. The Portuguese colonialist troops, badly beaten, are frightened to death.

In Angola, the people have persisted in armed struggle for eight years. They have established some active base areas in the Cabinda area and in the eastern part of the country where they are now carrying on armed activities. In late February this year, guerrilla forces triumphantly smashed the Portuguese colonial army barracks at a certain place.

The anti-imperialist armed struggle in Guinea (Bissau) started in 1961. Although the Portuguese colonialists, supported by U.S. imperialism, tried viciously to crush the local patriotic armed forces, the patriotic people, far from being suppressed, have resolutely continued to hold high the banner of armed struggle and are fighting on heroically. Their armed forces have liberated almost two-thirds of the country's territory. Moreover, constantly seizing the offensive, they have attacked Portuguese colonialist troops entrenched in a number of strongholds. Meanwhile in the territory under their own control, they have set up various¬

[A picture, with the caption:]

Patriotic freedom fighters of Angola engage in military training in an active base area. The Patriotic Armed Forces of Angola, which have persisted in armed struggle for eight years, are constantly developing and growing stronger.

[continued on p. 16, with the heading:]

The True Culture of Africa and Africans

mass fighting organizations, developed production and expanded cultural and educational activities.

In April, 1966 the people of Zimbabwe also raise[d/s —illegible] high the banner of armed struggle. For the last two years and more they have been smashing the military "encirclement and suppression" campaigns waged by the Smith white colonialist authorities with the support of the British and U.S. imperialists. They have strengthened their own forces in the struggle.

The raging flames of anti-imperialist struggle waged by the African people have now spread to South Africa. For example, since August 1966, the freedom fighters of Southwest Africa have engaged in vigorous armed resistance, killing many colonialist troops. So long as the broad masses of the African people, taking the road of armed struggle, maintain unity and persist in protracted struggle, no matter what the difficulties and hardships, they will surely drive imperialism and colonialism out of Africa.

[A picture, with the caption:]

Patriotic armed fighters of Guinea (Bissau). The patriotic armed forces have stepped up attacks on the Portuguese colonialist troops occupying southern, northern and eastern parts of the country and extended the fighting to Bissau, the main den of the colonialists in "Portuguese" Guinea. This has dealt the enemy a telling blow.

[A picture, with the caption:]

A guerrilla unit of the Guinean (Bissau) patriotic armed forces. Through armed struggle the guerrilla areas are gradually being expanded.

[A picture, with the caption:]

Below: Freedom fighters of Mozambique go in for vigorous military training in preparation for destroying the enemy more effectively. They carry out guerrilla tactics of making sudden attacks on isolated enemy strongholds and ambushing patrols of the Portuguese colonialist troops. Since the beginning of this year, they have won new victories continually and the colonialist troops have been severely beaten.

[A picture, with the caption:]

Lower right: Freedom fighters of Mozambique engage in production as well as in armed struggle. Harvesting maize which they themselves have raised.

[this multi-article section continued on the next page, p. 17, which has the same heading:]


[A picture, with the caption:]

The Angolan patriotic armed forces have persisted in struggle for eight years, wiping out great number of Portuguese colonialist troops. At present, the areas where the guerrillas control and carry their actions are daily widening.
Above: Guerrilla fighters conducting military drill in base area.
Below: Guerrilla fighters practising shooting.

5th Anniversary of the Zanzibar Revolution

Eliel Paul Mwaluko, Ambassador of the United Republic of Tanzania to China, gave a reception in Peking on January 11, to mark the 5th anniversary of the Zanzibar Revolution.

Present on the occasion were Kuo Mo-jo, Vice-Chairman of the National People's Congress, and leading members of the government department concerned and of the Peking Municipal Revolutionary Committee.

In his speech at the reception, Ambassador Mwaluko described the significance of the Zanzibar people's armed revolution and their achievements in construction after the victory of the revolution. The Ambassador warmly greeted the success of China's new hydrogen bomb test. He said: This great victory is a fruitful result of the great proletarian cultural revolution being carried out under the wise leadership of Chairman Mao. We rejoice over China's victories and achievements just as if they are our own.

Speaking of China's aid to his country, the Ambassador said: The sincere aid provided by China to Tanzania has increased our revolutionary courage and confidence. We are very grateful to Chairman Mao and the Chinese Government.

Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs Chi Peng-fei, in his speech, paid tribute to the Zanzibar people who bravely took up arms and waged an armed struggle to oppose the reactionary rule of imperialism and its running dogs and finally won national independence. He also paid tribute to the Tanzanian people who, under the leadership of President Nyerere, have in the past five years scored one achievement after another in the struggle to safe-guard national independence and in building their country.

Chi Peng-fei added: The great leader of the Chinese people Chairman Mao has pointed out: "The world revolution has entered a great new era." We are deeply convinced that in this new year, the people of Tanzania and other countries in Africa will win new victories in their anti-imperialist struggles, and that there will be a new development in the friendly relations between the Chinese and Tanzanian peoples.

Transcriber's comment (January 30, 2005): "The True Culture of Africa and Africans," which immediately follows the article "African Patriotic Armed Struggle Grows in Strength" in the same issue, actually consists of two articles. The first article is mostly a summary of the longer "African Patriotic Armed Struggle Grows in Strength." The second has the headline: "5th Anniversary of the Zanzibar Revolution." It reports on a Chinese diplomatic reception "to mark the 5th anniversary of the Zanzibar Revolution." The article quotes Kuo Mo-jo and Chi Peng-fei. Both articles are unattributed; however, it is particularly likely that "5th Anniversary of the Zanzibar Revolution" originated in the Chinese communist press. "True culture" may be an allusion to cultural nationalism, criticized in earlier issues of The Black Panther.

BLACK PANTHER Newspaper Collection | MIM Homepage