Maoist Glossary

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abstract labor: Labor that creates the exchange value of commodities. Abstract labor expresses the social relation in which labor is exchanged among people in commodity production. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 3&4) *see also: concrete labor

ad hominem: An attempt to counter another's claims or conclusions by attacking the person, rather than addressing the argument itself. Generally this is an appeal to emotions rather than logic. An example is a prosecutor asking a judge not to admit testimony of a someone convicted of shoplifting because shoplifters are not trustworthy. *see also: logical fallacies

ad ignorantiam: An argument that a specific belief is true because we don't know that it isn't true. Believers in god often ask, "how do you know there is no god?" *see also: logical fallacies

agent provocateur: One who joins a group in order to encourage its members to commit illegal acts for which they may then be busted. S/he pretends to be sympathetic toward the aims of the group that s/he infiltrates. (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary)

agnostic: commonly used to mean someone who believes that while there is no evidence that god exists is open to the idea that there may be a god; more generally it means someone who believes "I do not know if there is an objective reality which is reflected, imaged by our sensations; and I declare there is no way of knowing this"; agnostics are neither committed to materialism nor idealism as their theories of knowledge do not go beyond their sensations (Materialism and Empirio-Criticism: Critical Comments on a Reactionary Philosophy by Lenin, V.I. )

agricultural capitalist: Farm business owners. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 7)

Amerika: The white settler nation which has occupied North America since the 1600s *see also: Amerikkka

Amerikkka: the white settler nation which has occupied North America since the 1600s *see also: Amerika

anarchism: Anarchists aim for a classless society free of oppression. They differ from communists in that they don't support the strategy of building a party based on democratic centralism to end oppression and they disagree that there will be a necessary stage of dictatorship of the proletariat before communism can be achieved. Although they have a hatred for oppression and authority, the groups are principally a First World phenomenon and have never won a revolution. (MIM Theory 8: Anarchist Ideal by MIM )

anarchy of production: Capitalists are only trying to make profits rather than creating products in response to social need. They invest in whatever is most profitable to produce at a given time. This unplanned creation of products leads to overproduction and scarcity and is called anarchy of production. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 8)

antagonistic contradiction: "Contradiction and struggle are universal and absolute, but the methods of resolving contradictions, that is, the forms of struggle, differ according to the differences in the nature of the contradictions. Some contradictions are characterized by open antagonism, others are not. In accordance with the concrete development of things, some contradictions which were originally non-antagonistic develop into antagonistic ones, while others which were originally antagonistic develop into non-antagonistic ones. ...antagonism is one form, but not the only form, of the struggle of opposites" (On Contradiction by Mao Zedong , section VI) *see also: dialectical materialism

anti-imperialism: The belief that nations have the right to struggle for liberation when faced with oppression by other nations. Opposing imperialism means opposing the system where some nations use their power to exploit other nations' wealth. Imperialism stifles all indigenous economic and political activity in the oppressed nations. Anti-imperialists work to end the system of imperialism which allows a few nations to profit at the expense of the majority.

anti-imperialist united front: The loose alliance of classes and organizations that work to undermine imperialist domination. To achieve our principal task, we must unite all who can be united on the side of the oppressed against imperialism. Developing an anti-imperialist United Front, is facilitating the growth of the winning side of the principal contradiction in the world today. *see also: principal contradiction

argument from authority: To argue that something is true based on the authority of the persyn stating it. While one's experience and reputation in a subject give them legitimate credibility, this does not mean everything they say on the subject is true. This is the logic of authoritarianism, and used by all oppressive classes to justify themselves. *see also: logical fallacies

aristocracy: Historically, an elite ruling class based on inherited wealth usually in the form of land. MIM(Prisons) couples the word "aristocracy" with a category, in line with the figurative definition of the word from Oxford American Dictionary: a group regarded as privileged or superior in a particular sphere. *see also: labor aristocracy

assimilation: Adopting on the part of members of oppressed nations the culture, custom, identity and outlook popular amongst oppressor nations. Assimilation occurs at the expense of national liberation and revolutionary internationalism. (RAIM glossary)

Azania: Name used by the anti-apartheid movement for South Africa

Aztlán: Aztlán is the name of the Chican@ nation's national territory, more commonly known as the "Southwest United $tates." Aztlán is also the word used to identify an internal semi-colony that has been and continues to be oppressed. The Chican@ nation of Aztlán developed in the territory of Aztlán during the Amerikan capitalist-imperialist stages of development.

Before the concept of Aztlán was ever used by Chican@ revolutionaries as representative of our struggle against imperialism, Aztlán was originally conceived in the 1960s as a propaganda tool used by cultural nationalists.

banking capitalist: Lender of money to capitalists who produce or sell commodities. Banking capitalists charge interest on these loans, which is paid to them from the profits realized through surplus value. A subset of financial capitalists, banking capitalists pay interest to attract capital. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 7) *see also: financial capitalist

basic contradiction/fundamental contradiction of capitalism: social production vs. private ownership (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 5)

Boriqua: Derived from Borinquin, the indigenous Taíno term for the island named Puerto Rico by the Spanish colonizers, this term is used to denote a member of the nation that is now a colony of the United $tates; also Boricua

bourgeois internationalism: Today, there are two kinds of internationalism, bourgeois internationalism and proletarian internationalism. In the bourgeois internationalist view, peoples of all countries should have a chance to become exploiters. This view came into prominence among the imperialists with the rise of neo-colonialism, when the imperialist powers no longer claimed oppressed nations as their own. (MIM FAQ: What is Internationalism?) *see also: internationalism, neo-colonialism

bourgeois nationalism: Ideological expression of the upper and middle classes of oppressed nations, often implicitly identified with the capitalist-imperialist system yet dissatisfied with the current order and their place within. Bourgeois-nationalism can play both a progressive role, insofar as it can be incorporated in the broad united front against imperialism, or a reactionary role based in its tendency to capitulate to imperialism and impose its own system of oppression. (RAIM glossary)

bourgeoisie: The bourgeoisie is the exploiter class most characteristic of the capitalist system. Their wealth is obtained from the labor of others, in particular the proletariat.

The term "bourgeoisie" now usually refers to the capitalist class in common usage. The capitalist class is that class of people who own enough property that they would not have to work to make a living. The capitalist class only works if it wants to. Also included in the term are people with very powerful positions in production or government generally. A ruler may or may not have great assets on hand, but if s/he really wanted them, s/he has the power to get them. For example, Ronald Reagan made a speech in Japan with a $1 million fee after he retired from the presidency. If he had been "poor" during the presidency, he still would have been part of the "capitalist class." What he was doing was central enough to the ruling class of capitalism that he had de facto access to the means of production, even if he had gambled away his ranch and other assets in Las Vegas while he was in the White House.

An overly restrictive definition of capitalist is someone who owns the means of production--factories, tools and patents for example. What is important is not the literal ownership of means of production but access to those means of production. Such access could be merely the ability to get a loan so large that it is possible to live off the business connected to such a loan. Access to political information in the military, intelligence or executive branch would make it possible to be rich making a speech like Reagan did or by selling secrets to foreigners. People with such access to information also may be bourgeoisie. For example, Reagan could take his $1 million speech fee and convert it into means of production such as ownership of tools and factory buildings. Whether he does that or not, we can say he has "access" to the means of production.

There is another common and critically important usage of the term "bourgeoisie." Technically the bourgeoisie includes other sections, including those more numerous than the capitalist class. The "petty-bourgeoisie" or "petit-bourgeoisie" refers to people who are exploiters but not on the scale of the capitalists. The petty-bourgeoisie often owns its own means of production or professional skills but does not hire enough workers to be able to quit working and still live a life of leisure. There are other categories of bourgeoisie that are not capitalist, such as what Mao called the "comprador bourgeoisie" which owes its existence to imperialist capitalists and cannot function on its own as a capitalist class. *see also: capitalism

bourgeoisification: the process by which a group's class status becomes more allied with that of the bourgeoisie; in the imperialist countries, the so-called "workers" have such access to the means of production and consumption that that they have become bourgeoisified *see also: means of consumption, bourgeoisie

Brezhnevites: People who uphold the USSR of the 1960s to 1980s as a socialist or communist country. Seek immediate restoration of USSR on nationalist/chauvinist grounds. Opposed to Gorbachev and Yeltsin. (What's Your Line by MIM)

cadre: Literally, a frame or framework; a nucleus of trained, experienced activists in an organization capable of assuming leadership and/or training and educating, (instructing) others to perform functional roles (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary)

cadre organization: In contrast to a mass organization, a cadre organization recognizes the importance of a worked out ideology to decide its line and actions. They strive to play a vanguard (leadership) role within a movement. Membership requires a higher degree of ideological unity and standard of discipline than a mass organization. *see also: mass organization

capital accumulation: When a capitalist invests surplus value into means of production, rather than using it for persynal consumption. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 5)

capitalism: Capitalism is a mode of production, or economic system, where the bourgeoisie or capitalist class owns the means of production and exploits the labor of the proletariat. Because the proletariat owns nothing, they are forced to sell their labor power on the market in exchange for what they need to survive. When they work for the capitalist, the capitalist owns the value that they create and only pays them the portion of this value to sustain themselves. The rest is called surplus value, or the profit exploited from the worker, which is the basic law of capitalist economic relations.

Everything that has a use value and exchange value becomes a commodity under capitalism, including labor power. This allows for exchange to occur on a scale far beyond anything humyns have done before capitalism, because exchange values of any two commodities can be quickly compared from anywhere in the capitalist world. Capital itself is a value that can bring about surplus value, exploiting the workers. Capital includes machines, tools and raw materials as well as the labor power of the workers. Commodities and capital are unique to the capitalist mode of production and embody the exploitative relationship of the bourgeoisie to the proletariat. In contrast, bourgeois economists would have us believe that these are eternal things, and ignore their relationship to exploitation.

Capitalism exists where non-workers control the production of wage-workers, even if private property is officially state property. Under capitalism, democracy for the working classes is undermined through people's lack of control of their own workplace and society as a whole. Workers have little say in how their workplace is organized or what will be produced. In the United $tates, people in the inner cities have little control over their environment. They do not control the police or the spending of their tax money. And certainly the "justice" system is out of control. (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , Section 2)

Central Committee: The top leadership group in democratic centralism which includes the secretary and deputy secretaries. The vanguard of the vanguard party. *see also: democratic centralism

chauvinism: Selfish prejudice, narrow-mindedness or bias; for example the First World-chauvinist belief that First World workers are better workers than Third World workers. (MIM Theory 1: A White Proletariat? by MIM , p.4)

Chican@: Of or belonging to the nation of Aztlán. Chican@s are generally of Mexican descent and citizens of the United $tates, but also include many people of Central and South American descent who have migrated to North America. These Raza from outside of Mexico are living in Chican@ barrios and have developed to be a part of this nation in spite of their distinct national origin.

The origins of Chicano comes from the word Mexica. If you were a Mexica then you became a Mechicano. "Mechicano was the original name the Spaniards first called our Mexica ancestors mispronouncing their Mexica name and it was used as a way to refer to all of Anahuac (Meso-America, i.e. Mexico) which at the time included what is today known as Central America and Aztlan-Chicomoztoc (the so-called U.$. southwest and beyond). Chicana and Chicano are just shortened and Spanish language versions of Mexica... Chicana and Chicano have long been considered perfectly acceptable variations on Mexica." We have chosen to use the gender-neutral spelling, Chican@. ('Mexica Movement, An Indigenous Guide to the 21st Century' by Ol) *see also: Aztlán

circular reasoning: Where the reason relies on the conclusion being true. For example: "God exists because the Bible says so; the Bible is true since it's the word of God." *see also: logical fallacies

class: a group of people with a common relation to the means of production, to the distribution of the means of consumption, and to other classes of people (MIM Theory 2/3: Gender and Revolutionary Feminism by MIM , p. 72) *see also: means of production, means of consumption

class consciousness: The understanding by members of particular classes that they represent a certain class, that their class interests may intersect or oppose those of others classes, and of their agency when collectively organized for class struggle. Typically, class consciousness is used to describe the most broad, clearest perspective of either the proletariat, the bourgeoisie or their sub-classes. (RAIM glossary)

COINTELPRO: short name for the CounterIntelligence Program of the United $tates Federal Bureau of Investigation, which was used to refer to specific secret and typically illegal government operations; more generally used to refer to systematic campaigns directed by the Bureau against a wide array of selected domestic political organizations and individuals, especially during the 1960s (Agents of Repression: FBI Secret Wars Against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Moveme by Churchill, Ward and Jim Vander Wall , p. 37-38)

colonialism: foreign domination of a country or people where the economic, political and military structure is controlled and run by the occupying force; the primary motivation of colonialism is generally the economic benefit of the "mother" country at the expense of the colony (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary)

Comintern: (1919-1943) founded in Moscow following the 1917 Bolshevik revolution, the Communist International (Comintern) was formed to fight "by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and for the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the State." The founding of the Comintern was defined by a strong line on the labor aristocracy being the enemy class within the proletarian movement, following the pro-war nationalism that marked much of the Second International. The end of the Comintern came with similar experiences as the social democratic parties of Europe, representing labor aristocracy interests, put up no resistance to fascism, and earned the epithet social-fascists. The Comintern's heavy hand in China lead to setbacks for the Chinese Communists at the hands of the Guomindang, demonstrating the incorrectness of one international body leading the world revolution and the correctness of Stalin's line of building socialism in one country at a time. In China Mao Zedong struggled against the Wang Ming-line of following foreign authorities to develop a strong indigenous revolution. (Labor Aristocracy, Mass Base of Social Democracy by Edwards, H.W. , Chapter XXIX)

commercial capitalist: Sells commodities for the industrial capitalist. S/he advances capital to buy commodities in bulk to sell for the industrial capitalist to help the industrial capitalist realize surplus value. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 7)

commodity: Anything available for sale or exchange. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 3)

communalism: A small scale, classless society. Communism is an advance over communalism in the organization of society on a larger scale. Afrocentric communists who have little to say about Marx, the Soviet Union, or China often romanticize pre-colonial communalist societies in Africa as their model. They ignore the contradictions that led to communalism's end, including their inability to defend themselves from larger, better organized societies that enslaved them. (How Europe Underdeveloped Africa by Rodney, Walter , p. 80)

communism: Communism is the abolition of power of people over people. This means abolishing "oppression," whether the oppression be of nations by nations, classes by classes, women by men or any other division in society. Communism is based on mutual cooperation, peace and justice instead of oppression.

Long-run goals of communism include the abolition of classes and organizing society without governments or borders. As in certain tribal societies in the past and living still today, communists believe that it is possible for humyns to organize themselves without war, crime, starvation and homelessness. When there are social problems, communists blame those problems on how society is organized. They seek to organize society to bring out the best in people, however flawed the species may be. No communist leader has ever claimed that a society has achieved communism yet. That means the industrial societies of our time have either lived in capitalism or socialism.

Many people have communist intentions. They want to abolish oppression and claim work towards communism. Because MIM(Prisons) judges political movements based on their long term effects relative to other real-life movements, we encourage people with communist intentions to study and apply Marxism-Leninism-Maoism, which we believe has proved the most effective path towards communism. MIM(Prisons) reserves the term "communist" for those who share our views on the historic attempts in foreign countries to move toward communism and apply the method of dialectical materialism to current problems. The dividing line questions for communists involve an understanding of the two largest, most socialist experiments: China and the Soviet Union. MIM(Prisons) believes communists must agree on six important questions, which are listed on page 2 of recent issues of Under Lock & Key or on our About page.

Finally, communists believe that a communist party - not just ad hoc or individual organizing - is necessary to seize state power from the oppressors. Within the party members carry out democratic centralism on all issues other than these six key points. This means struggling over disagreements internally, while upholding the organization line in public.

People working to end oppression who do not agree with MIM(Prisons) on these six questions or do not believe in the necessity of a party belong in other organizations -- organizations MIM(Prisons) believes belong to political trends that are historically proven to be less effective in bringing about the end of oppression.

MIM(Prisons) expresses general unity with all other groups and outbreaks against imperialism: mass movements against oppression have as many forms as forms of power. In this spirit, we insist on telling people the uncompromised truth and discussing and criticizing the strategy and tactics of any given action. MIM(Prisons) encourages everyone, communist or not, to be involved in the struggle against imperialism. (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , Section 2)

comprador bourgeoisie: In colonized nations this class acts as junior partners to the imperialists in exploiting the colonized people. As a class, their interests are tied closely to those of the imperialists even if they have a national interest in independence. They sell out their nation for persynal benefit.

concrete labor: Labor expended to create use value. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 3&4) *see also: abstract labor

constant capital: The part of capital used to buy the means of production. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 3&4)

continuous revolution: The Maoist principal that class struggle must continue under the dictatorship of the proletariat, not just against pre-existing bourgeois elements, but against the threat of a new bourgeoisie, which is most likely to develop within the party in state power.

crypto-Trotskyism: Term used to refer to organizations that exhibit Trotskyist tendencies but which don't admit to being Trotskyist. Most significantly they suffer from the same great-nation chauvinism as the other Trots, over-emphasizing the role of the oppressor nation working classes and under-emphasizing the role of the liberation struggles of the oppressed nations. *see also: Trotskyists

cultural nationalism: this is an idealist form of nationalism, which looks to the past to establish a national identity rather than taking destiny into our own hands and creating a new future.

"Cultural nationalism, or pork chop nationalism, as I sometimes call it, is basically a problem of having the wrong political perspective. It seems to be a reaction instead of responding to political oppression. The cultural nationalists are concerned with returning to the old African culture and thereby regaining their identity and freedom. In other words, they feel that the African culture will automatically bring political freedom. Many times cultural nationalists fall into line as reactionary nationalists." -- Huey P. Newton, 1968 (The Black Panthers Speak by Foner, Philip S. (editor) , p.50) *see also: idealism

dead labor: As the worker is working, the labor is called "live labor." Once the labor is done and embodied in cars, tools or whatever commodity the worker makes, the labor is called "dead labor." People exchange commodities with dead labor in them. That is, they exchange some kinds of dead labor for other kinds of dead labor. (MIM Theory 1: A White Proletariat? by MIM , p. 4) *see also: Labor Theory of Value

delegation: A group of people representing the interest of a larger group in places such as party gatherings. A group attending a conference in representation of their area.

democratic centralism: A system of organization where all members of an organization are able to participate in the formulation of policies, goals, programs and procedures. After a decision has been made regarding policies, goals, programs and procedures, all members are expected to publicly uphold the decision (line) that was made, even if they disagree with it, until the next opportunity arises to debate the issue further. In addition, higher committees are elected by broader levels of the organization and higher and lower levels are interdependent and accountable to each other.

depreciation of fixed capital: One type is visible from wear and tear (visible); the other type is due to increases in technology that make the fixed capital worth less over time (invisible). (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 6)

determinism: The notion that something causes something else, without fail. The overdeterminationists criticize this in Marxism as substituting economics for god. (MIM Theory 2/3: Gender and Revolutionary Feminism by MIM , p. 80) *see also: overdetermination

deviation: When there is no recognizable pattern underneath errors, they are just errors, but if we start to see a pattern, the errors become a "deviation." Underneath a deviation is usually a line that may not be well-expressed but which nonetheless causes a deviation, a pattern of errors. The process of deciding what is the correct line and what is a deviation can only be carried out through scientific summation of practice. Deviationists may be disgraced but not necessarily considered official enemy. *see also: revisionism, opportunism, political error

dialectical materialism: The world outlook (or philosophy) first developed by Marx and Engels by combining a dialectical approach with a materialist study of the world. The dialectical materialist theory of knowing and doing is a constant cycle of knowledge development. Perceptual knowledge is used to make judgments and inferences, from which one forms rational knowledge, which one redirects to social practice. This revolutionary practice produces objective and subjective results, which become additional perceptual knowledge. (MIM Theory 9: Psychology by MIM , p. 92) *see also: dialectics, materialism

dialectics: The study of contradictions within the very essence of things. The scientific analytical approach to studying contradictions within nature taking into account the historical development and the interaction of related things. Dialectics holds that nothing exists independent, isolated or unconnected, but that all phenomena are connected and part of the whole. They are dependent upon and determined by each other.

Dialectics also holds that all things are in a constant state of motion, i.e. changes. They move from a qualitative level with constant small changes to a qualitative level when their very essence or character make a giant leap to a new existence. These changes follow a definite pattern determined by the external and internal contradictions within themselves. This being that all phenomena are made up of opposite forces, i.e. internal contradictions, which are the basis for change and that all external forces, i.e. external contradictions, interact and become the conditions or impetus to change. (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary) *see also: metaphysics

dictatorship: Dictatorship is organized force. According to Marxism, all governments are dictatorships. When classes are abolished, it may be possible to have no dictatorships because governments will be abolished and replaced by voluntary cooperation.

dictatorship of the proletariat: A state in which the bourgeoisie has been toppled from power and the proletariat has taken control. Rule by force of the entire proletarian class and their allies over the bourgeois class and their allies. The dictatorship of the proletariat is an organized force to protect the non-negotiable interests of the majority of the world's people for food, clothing, shelter, medicine, and a pollution-free and militarism-free environment -- survival rights. It represses those who put property or profit rights or other exchange value goals above survival rights. It also represses those who seek to cause strife within the dictatorship of the proletariat, by, for example, agitating for violence against the party.

The development of the dictatorship of the proletariat marks the stage of struggle between capitalism and communism. (MIM Theory 14: United Front by MIM , p. 38)

differential rent: Type 1- Rent arising from the difference in fertility and location of the land.
Type 2- Rent arising from successive investments on the same piece of land which yields greater surplus value. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 7)

dogmatism: The belief in, or promotion of, ideas without basis in fact or without depth. Dogmatists are stubborn, and view things arrogantly and narrow-mindedly.

dualism: A view that two distinct realities exist. One is generally in the realm of ideas, the other in the realm of material things. Most modern religions are dualist in believing in a god separate from our universe. Other dualist concepts include: Supernatural/Natural, Spirit/Matter, Soul/Body, World of the Senses/World of Intellect, Good/Evil. (Dictionary of Philosophy by Peter A. Angeles)

economic substructure: Production relations; determines superstructure. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , page 8) *see also: superstructure

economism: Reformism focused on improvements in wages or other economic demands without proposing a change in the economic system that creates inequality in the first place. (Labor Aristocracy, Mass Base of Social Democracy by Edwards, H.W. , Chapter XXI)

elite: A small group of people who have power over a larger group of which they are a part, usually without a direct responsibility to that larger group and often without their knowledge or consent. (The Tyranny of Structurelessness by Freeman, Jo )

empiricism: The belief that knowledge is derived from experience through direct observation of phenomena. This is more specifically called pragmatist empiricism. In contrast, we recognize that 99% of practice is now history and not things that we will experience directly. (Examples of pragmatist empiricism) *see also: pragmatism

exchange value: The value of a commodity when traded for other things (i.e. air has no exchange value, a bottle of water is worth about $1). (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 3)

expanded reproduction: When a portion of surplus value is invested in capital after each turnover, so that capital accumulates and the surplus value exploited increases. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 5)

exploitation: Exploitation is the appropriation of surplus labor from workers by capitalists. The main exploited classes in the world today are the peasantry, proletariat and lumpen-proletariat -- almost wholly found in the Third World. A worker is exploited if ey earns less than the value of the work ey performs.

ey/em/eir: When referring to an individual in the third persyn, we will use either their name or the neutral pronouns of ey, em, and eir to replace s/he and h. Ey, em, and eir are singularized versions of they, them, and their and we believe these more accurately reflect the biological sex of humyns, in that they downplay the inaccurate binary which has developed over thousands of years of patriarchal history. We also think ey/em/eir will have the greatest ease of use, from the wide selection of gender neutral pronoun sets which have been proposed in the past.(5)

We define men and wimmin as those who are oppressors in leisure time and those who are oppressed in leisure time, respectively, and regardless of biological genitalia or reproductive capacity.(4) This is the strand of oppression called gender. When referring to people or individuals when gender is relevant, we will refer to them as men or wimmin and use he or she pronouns. (Similarly, we don't always reference other defining characteristics of our correspondents, but we do refer to someone as "New Afrikan" or "clean-shaven" when relevant.) (Attacking the Myth of Binary Biology: MIM(Prisons) Eliminates Ge)

false dichotomy: Arbitrarily reducing a set of many possibilities to only two. For example, "We need to rise up now or we might as well kill ourselves." *see also: logical fallacies

fascism: "a movement of mixed elements, dominantly petit-bourgeois, but also slum-proletarian and demoralized working class, financed and directed by finance-capital, by the big industrialists, landlords and financiers, to defeat the working-class revolution and smash the working-class organizations." (Fascism and Social Revolution: How and Why Fascism Came to Power in Europe by Dutt, R. Palme , R.P. Dutt)

feminism: The belief that no gender group should have power over any other gender group. Internationalist feminism seeks to end gender oppression for people all across the world, and develops strategy using dialectical materialism.

Internationalist feminism is in opposition to First World feminism, which limits its scope to increasing the benefits of the gender aristocracy of First World wimmin. First World feminist benefits are typically gained through increasing oppression of Third World wimmin. For example, First World wimmin enjoy a greater variety of relatively inexpensive birth control methods because of non-concensual drug testing on Third World wimmin.

feudalism: The mode of production in which the aristocracy owns the land and serfs work on it giving a portion of the proceeds to the owners. Characterized by a landlord system, found in agrarian societies. Under feudalism, land is the primary means of production and landless or semi-landless peasants are the primary producers. Social relations under feudalism are usually based on tradition.

The social order which preceded capitalism, its main characteristic being the exploitation of the mass of peasantry by the feudal nobility. Feudalism prevailed throughout the Middle Ages, undergoing various forms of development in different countries. Its final stage, caused by the advance of commodity exchange, was serfdom, in which exploitation of the peasantry was of the severest kind, little different from slavery. "The basis of the relations of production under the feudal system is that the feudal lord owns the means of production and does not fully own the worker in production, i.e. the serf, whom the feudal lord can no longer kill, but whom he may buy and sell." (History of the C.P.S.U.)

Existing side by side with feudalism, and presaging its later replacement by the capitalist mode of production, were such social elements and forces as guilds, growth of the towns, advance of commerce, establishment of the banks, emergence of the bourgeoisie (burghers, burgesses), the appearance of manufactories alongside the handicraft workshops. (Marxist Glossary by Gould, L. Harry , p. 48)

financial capitalist: those capitalists who lend temporarily idle money capital to other capitalists in need of this money. Money capital is lent for a share of the surplus value the borrowing capitalist extracts, and this share is called interest. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 7) *see also: banking capitalist

First Nation: Indigenous population which has been colonized by, but not integrated into, an invading settler nation

First World chauvinism: Biased thinking that the First World is deserving of an inflated standard of living relative to the Third World. First World chauvinists are biased in this regard for many reasons: religion, racism, audacity, etc. Even so-called Marxists can have First World chauvinism, when they believe that the Third World cannot figure out the path toward revolution on their own, and need the guidance of a First World-based communist party. *see also: First Worldist

First World lumpen: The class of people in the First World who are excluded from the productive process. By virtue of living in the First World this class, on average, receives more material benefits from imperialism than the global proletariat. As such their interests are not the same as the exploited classes and we do not include them in the "lumpen-proletariat." But their conditions in many ways parallel those of the lumpen-proletariat standing in stark contrast to the majority of the First World populations. (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , Section 2) *see also: lumpen-proletariat

First Worldist: an attitude that is chauvinist in favor of the people of the First World *see also: chauvinism, First World chauvinism

fixed capital: Capital that is not consumed in one cycle of turnover of capital, i.e. machines, buildings, equipment. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 6) *see also: working capital

focoism: The belief that small cells of armed revolutionaries can create the conditions for revolution through their actions. Demonstrated revolutionary victories, the successes of the foci, are supposed to lead the masses to revolution. Focoism often places great emphasis on armed struggle and the immediacy this brings to class warfare. Focoism is different from people's war in that it doesn't promote the mass line as part of guerrilla operations. (What is MIM? by MIM )

friendship groups: A group of friends who also happen to participate in the same political activities. Most of these group's members participate within the group because they "like" the people in them and not because they have the correct line. (The Tyranny of Structurelessness by Freeman, Jo )

Gamblers' Fallacy: Believing that a deviation in a series of (independent) chance events will soon be met by a deviation the opposite way. For example, "The last 5 spins have all been black, I'm betting all my money on red. I'm sure to win!" *see also: logical fallacies

gender: One of three strands of oppression, the other two being class and nation. Gender can be thought of as socially-defined attributes related to one's sex organs and physiology. Patriarchy has led to the splitting of society into an oppressed (wimmin) and oppressor gender (men).

Historically reproductive status was very important to gender, but today the dynamics of leisure-time and humyn biological development are the material basis of gender. For example, children are the oppressed gender regardless of genitalia, as they face the bulk of sexual oppression independent of class and national oppression.

People of biologically superior health-status are better workers, and that's a class thing, but if they have leisure-time, they are also better sexually privileged. We might think of models or prostitutes, but professional athletes of any kind also walk this fine line. Athletes, models and well-paid prostitutes are not oppressed as "objects," but in fact they hold sexual privilege. Older and disabled people as well as the very sick are at a disadvantage, not just at work but in leisure-time. For that matter there are some people with health statuses perfectly suited for work but not for leisure-time. (Clarity On What Gender Is (from 1998 MIM Congress) by MC5 )

gender aristocracy: Those who are not part of the patriarchy but who enjoy gender privilege so that their interests in leisure-time and in relation to pleasure align with the patriarchy. The gender aristocracy in the First World is often focused on ways to expand or justify their privilege while ignoring the plight of the truly gender oppressed (e.g. campaigning to legalize sex work, as opposed to organizing to end the conditions that drive gender oppressed wimmin into sex work). (MIM Theory 2/3: Gender and Revolutionary Feminism by MIM ) *see also: patriarchy

genocide: The deliberate eradication of part or all of an ethnic group or nation.

h: gender neutral pronoun; his/her

hegemony: Domination, especially in a national context

historical materialism: The materialist conception of history starts from the proposition that the production of the means to support human life and, next to production, the exchange of things produced, is the basis of all social structure; that in every society that has appeared in history, the manner in which wealth is distributed and society divided into classes or orders is dependent upon what is produced, how it is produced, and how the products are exchanged. From this point of view, the final causes of all social changes and political revolutions are to be sought, not in men's brains, not in men's better insights into eternal truth and justice, but in changes in the modes of production and exchange. They are to be sought, not in the philosophy, but in the economics of each particular epoch. (Socialism: Utopian and Scientific by Engels, Frederich ) *see also: dialectical materialism, mode of production

Hoxhaites: Upholders of Albanian socialism and the leader of the Albanian Communist Party, Enver Hoxha. Hoxha claimed unity with Mao until the latter's death, when Hoxha publicly criticized the Cultural Revolution. (MIM. What's Your Line?)

humyn: Alternate spelling of 'human' to oppose seeing humyns as predominately men, who are the oppressor gender.

hypothesis: a statement that uses a few observations; an idea or proposition based on observations without experimental evidence *see also: law (scientific)

idealism: The concept that mind is primary and matter is secondary. Idealists believe that all things originate from the idea and that matter is only a reflection of what exists in the mind, as one perceives it. The physical world can only be conceived as relative to, or dependent on the mind, spirit or experience. (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary)

identity politics: the idea that a person or group's political analysis and practice is less important than their identity; identity politics is a pre-scientific way of thinking that leads people to follow others for reasons like where they are from, their appearance or other cultural cues

ideology: A systematic set of principles and beliefs relating to life, culture, politics, etc. Integrated assertions, theories and aims that constitute a socio-political program. Generally our political ideology is used to create our political line. (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary)

imperialism: Imperialism is an economic system that V.I. Lenin defined as the "highest stage of capitalism." It became well pronounced in the early 1900s, and is defined by the globalization of capital, the dominance of finance capital and the division of the world into imperialist and exploited nations; the latter Maoists see as the principal contradiction in the world today.

As the economic system that dominates the world, imperialism determines much of the material reality that all inhabitants of planet Earth face today, including war, poverty and environmental destruction. This means that the status quo promoted by imperialist interests is the biggest hindrance to change. As the dominant imperialist power, both financially and militarily, the United $tates generally serves as the primary target of our attacks as anti-imperialists. (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , Section 2)

individualism: A narrow selfish approach or outlook based upon putting oneself before the interests of the people, organization, and comrades. A bourgeois tendency expressed in the "pull yourself up by your bootstraps" theory. (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary)

industrial capitalist: Factory business owner (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 7)

integrationism: the political strategy of incorporating into the oppressor nation as equals rather than struggling for self-determination; for example, the idea that the oppression of New Afrikans can be ended by having more New Afrikan cops, lawyers and politicians. *see also: revolutionary nationalism

interest: A compensation which lenders charge from borrowers on their loan. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 7)

internal colony: A colony contained entirely within the borders of a colonial power, e.g. the First Nations of North America or Aboriginal Australian nations. *see also: colonialism

International Workingmen's Association: (1864-1876) later deemed the First International, this European based organization brought together labor activists of various political leanings and nationalities for the first time. Over time, the struggle between Karl Marx's socialist strategy and Mikhail Bakunin's anarchist strategy became the defining debate of the period. (Labor Aristocracy, Mass Base of Social Democracy by Edwards, H.W. , Chapter XXIX)

internationalism: The ethical belief or scientific approach in which peoples of different nations are held to be equal. Internationalism is opposed to racism and national chauvinism. (MIM FAQ: What is Internationalism?) *see also: chauvinism

Kim Il Sungist: Upholders of the "Juche" idea of the late president of northern Korea, Kim Il Sung. Like Hoxhaites and the left-wing of Brezhnevism, they carry forward Stalin's theory of class struggle under socialism and reject Mao's attack on the bourgeoisie in the party. (MIM. What's Your Line?)

knout: a whip used for flogging

labor: The expenditure of humyn labor power; physical action with the intention of meeting a material need or want. Work done as part of the basic economic process of a society.

Labor power is what the workers sell to capitalists for a money wage. Labor is the actual work. "On the one hand all labor is, speaking physiologically, an expenditure of human labor power."(Marx, Capital vol 1, New York: International Publishers, 1967, p.177) (MIM Theory 1: A White Proletariat? by MIM , p. 5) *see also: labor power

labor aristocracy: Unlike the traditional petty bourgeoisie, they do not own their own means of production and so must work for others. But unlike the proletariat and semi-proletariat the labor aristocracy in the First World earn more than the value of their labor and therefore have interests that fall in the bourgeois camp allying with imperialism.

In Lenin's day the Labor Aristocracy was the "upper strata of the proletariat." Lenin wrote that he was "obliged to distinguish between the 'upper stratum' of the workers and the 'lower stratum of the proletariat proper.'"(Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism) "The capitalists can devote a part (and not a small one, at that!) of these superprofits to bribe their own workers, to create something like an alliance (recall the celebrated 'alliances' described by the Webbs of English trade unions and employers) between the workers of the given nation and their capitalists against the other countries."(Lenin, Imperialism and the Split in Socialism, Lenin's emphasis).

In the First World today we define this group as the lower segment of the petty-bourgeoisie, working for a wage and earning more than the value of their labor but without the means to get a loan to start a small business themselves. This group benefits from the imperialist world's superexploitation of the Third World. They are bought off by the imperialists with these superprofits. In the First World this group is not exploited and so not part of the proletariat. On the contrary, their incomes are often higher than those traditionally classified as the petty bourgeoisie in the Third World, further demonstrating their bourgeois character. (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , Section 2) *see also: petty bourgeoisie, proletariat

labor power: "The capitalist buys labor power in order to use it; and labor power in use is labor itself."(p. 177) Labor power is the ability to do labor. Labor power is what the workers sell to capitalists for a money wage. Labor is the actual work. "On the one hand all labor is, speaking physiologically, an expenditure of human labor power."(p. 46) The value of labor power is "...the cost of producing or reproducing the laborer himself..."(p.538)

Quotes from Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. 1, New York: International Publishers, 1967. (MIM Theory 1: A White Proletariat? by MIM , p. 5)

Labor Theory of Value: Labor is the sole source of value. The worth of a product is determined by the amount of work required to create it. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 3&4)

lackey: A flunky. Footman. To wait upon or serve slavishly. Also lacquey. (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary)

landed class: Land owners who rent out their land to get a share of the surplus value. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 7)

law (scientific): a scientific idea that stands the test of time, often without change; experimentally confirmed over and over; can create true predictions for different situations; has uniformity and is universal *see also: hypothesis

law of value: The value of a commodity is determined by the socially necessary labor required to create it. Commodities are exchanged according to their value. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 3&4)

left wing of white nationalism: We often refer to the left wing of white nationalism when talking about the self-proclaimed communist, anarchist and radical reformist groups that help prop up imperialism by making it seem more benign. They are characterized by an integrationist approach towards the oppressed nations, in their efforts to preserve white dominance in the imperialist system. (The real lessons of the Chicano Moratorium and the high treason) *see also: white nationalism

legal Marxist: Pseudo-Marxist groups that the bourgeoisie allows or disseminates to confuse or slander true Marxism. This was necessary in Tsarist Russia and is paralleled in places like India today.

Leninism: Ideology rooted in following the theories of V.I. Lenin, leader of the Russian revolution until his death in 1924. Includes ideas regarding the nature and significance of imperialism, the role of the state and support for the theory that a disciplined vanguard party is essential to a successful socialist revolution leading to a dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry. Generally considered to be an advance on Marxism, also called Marxism-Leninism. Dogmatic Leninists do not believe that there have been significant advances in revolutionary theory since the death of Lenin. We see Maoism as the next stage of development of Marxism-Leninism.

liberal bourgeois: The free-thinking section of the bourgeoisie who believe in individual freedoms for all while at the same time holding tight to the bourgeois way of life. Liberalism is a capitalist ideology, which had progressive features in feudal societies that were authoritarian. *see also: Liberalism

Liberalism: There is a distinction between "liberalism" and "Liberalism." Liberalism as a proper noun prioritizes individual rights and choice. It may attack the state and other organizations claiming privileges higher than individual rights. The doctrine of "laissez-faire" (or non-interference) economics belongs in Liberalism, which is one reason that many conservatives are also Liberals, if they live in societies where they believe they have a "free market" worth defending. The individual right to trade and conduct business without state interference is common to much conservatism and Liberalism. Many other people believe they have individual "free speech" rights that they want to maintain as part of the status quo. Hence, we say there can be conservative Liberals and liberal Liberals. Within Maoism, Liberalism refers to tolerance for things that violate our political principles. (MIM. What is the difference between Liberalism and Communism?) *see also: liberalism

liberalism: The belief in reforms of the system to improve individual rights is "liberalism" -- of the FDR, Ralph Nader, Van Jones, and Michael Moore variety. These "liberals" may attack "free market" economics and encourage use of the state to create a better situation of individual rights. Government-sponsored affirmative action programs or consumer protection agencies set out to improve an existing situation, in which liberals see injustice that prevents the existence of individual rights. (What is the difference between Liberalism and Communism?) *see also: Liberalism

lifestyle politics: An idealist approach to political change that focuses on perfecting the self rather than changing the society that the self is a product of; lifestyle politics are an ultra-left deviation that causes unnecessary splitting in the revolutionary camp. *see also: sub-reformism, ultra-leftism, idealism

line: Line is generally a belief, but line can also be a goal. For instance, our belief is that only through communism can we abolish the oppression of groups of people over other people. At the same time it is our goal to abolish the oppression of people over other people.

liquidationism: The attribution of a small or non-existent role to vanguard party leadership.

logical fallacies: A conclusion is incorrectly made, often based on true premises. Where a computer could easily tell us whether a conclusion is valid or not based on the premises given, our subjectivism often allows us to accept conclusions that do not make logical sense. Logical fallacies are an important tool for convincing people of things that are not true, so understanding them is an important tool to avoid being fooled. *see also: subjectivism, ad hominem, ad ignorantiam, tu quoque, argument from authority, teleological argument, circular reasoning, false dichotomy, slippery slope, straw man argument, post-hoc ergo propter hoc, non-sequitur, Gamblers' Fallacy, poison the well, the fallacy fallacy, psychogenetic fallacy

lumpen-proletariat: In a world where the vast majority must sell their labor power to survive, the lumpen-proletariat are those who are not able to sell theirs due to the limitations of capitalism at providing full employment. This class is rarely employed, often living as parasites on other proletarians. A small portion of the proletariat in Europe when Marx first wrote about them, the lumpen-proletariat has become an important class in itself. With the rise of mega-slums in the Third World following the period of neo-colonialism, this class has surpassed 1 billion people. (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , Section 2) *see also: First World lumpen

Manifest Destiny: In the 19th century, Manifest Destiny was a widely held belief in the United States that American settlers were destined to expand throughout the continent. Historians have for the most part agreed that there are three basic themes to Manifest Destiny:

* The special virtues of the American people and their institutions;

* America's mission to redeem and remake the west in the image of agrarian America;

* An irresistible destiny to accomplish this essential duty. (Native America, Discovered And Conquered by Robert J. Miller, p. 120)

Manilovism: From the name Manilov, a character in Gogel's Dead Souls, represented as a type of easygoing sentimental landowner, whose name has become a synonym for an idle, weak-willed dreamer and gas-bag.

Maoism: Maoism is the ideology which emerged from the first successful Third World peasant revolution that liberated China in 1949 and guided the building of socialism in that country until capitalists seized power in 1976. Maoism is a higher stage of revolutionary science built on the foundations of Marxism and Leninism, and developed by the experience of the Chinese people who took up the revolutionary project during that time. Since then, it has influenced all the subsequent anti-colonial struggles in Africa and Asia and inspired many other revolutionary movements including ones inside the United $tates.

Maoism is famous for many changes in China, including: land reform; collectivization of agriculture; abolishing China's huge drug addiction problem; ending pornography and prostitution; eliminating the practice of breaking wimmin's feet (footbinding) to make them smaller and supposedly cuter; establishing China's first law allowing divorce; and eventually instituting worker-run industry without private property in the means of production.

Mao developed and popularized the philosophy of dialectical materialism. A major contribution was the thesis that the superstructure of society can at times be primary over the economic base; that the subjective can be primary over the objective, which challenged the deterministic readings of Marx of the past. This theory was proven true in the revolutionary era in China when the Red Army built base areas that prototyped socialist relations of production and culture as a form of dual power prior to liberation from Japanese imperialism. This experience was important for the development of socialism under the dictatorship of the proletariat after the communists seized power in China. In this stage, the theory that the superstructure can be primary was proven true once again in the struggle against the theory of productive forces. Maoism put politics in command, sacrificing immediate improvements in economic output, in favor of transforming the relations of production in order to unleash the new productive forces under socialism.

Related to this transformation of social relations, Maoism stresses reliance on the mass line in leading the vanguard party. Both are examples of Mao's saying that the masses alone make history. It is by collecting the ideas of the masses and synthesizing them through practice that the vanguard finds the correct path to creating a new society that serves the people. The strategy of Protracted People's War put the mass line in practice, and connected both the party and the army to the masses in a way that transformed all involved. This culminated in the masses of Chinese people ousting a financially, technically and even for many years numerically, superior occupying force. The mass line continued to be important under the dictatorship of the proletariat, and was again brought to the forefront during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (GPCR), when the masses of people were engaged in the struggle to distinguish the socialist road from the capitalist one.

Complete revolution is fundamental to Maoism. This means that all social, cultural, political and economic relations must be revolutionized. People will not be liberated by simply breaking the state or smashing capitalism. China's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution is the best example we have of this attempt to completely eradicate capitalist influence, and build a society free from oppression. A country whose majority was illiterate peasants, facing preventable illness, drug addiction and brutal abuse was transformed into one where everyone was engaged in regular political study sessions directly related to the daily needs of their local community — where the basics of food, clothing, shelter and health care became universal.

More specifically, and dividing supposed communists everywhere, Mao was the first communist leader to argue that class struggle continues under socialism and that such struggle must go on within the the communist party and against the bourgeoisie inside that party. Mao warned that without successful struggle against the bourgeoisie in the party, there would be a restoration of capitalism done in the name of socialism at first — as in fact happened in the Soviet Union and China. Since much of Mao's writing merely continues previous Marxism-Leninism or because many of the new parts of Marxism-Leninism contributed by Mao are now widely accepted, it is Mao's doctrine on the bourgeoisie in the party above all which continues to separate Maoism from other varieties of supposed communism to this day.

New Democracy is another development we take from Maoism, that some dogmatists still use to dismiss the Chinese revolution as a bourgeois revolution. Semi-feudal/semi-colonial nations in the age of imperialism need to first liberate themselves from imperialism before they can build a socialist society. This national contradiction is resolved with a new democratic revolution which unites the national bourgeoisie, petty bourgeoisie and the exploited classes under the leadership of the proletariat.

Related to New Democracy is the relationship between the vanguard party and the united front against imperialism, and the importance of the leadership role of the proletarian party in relation to the united front. Similarly, Maoism stresses the importance of an army that is led and directed by the party. These lessons are vital to the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat today, especially in the exploited Third World countries. (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , Section 2)

Marxism: an integrated body of revolutionary science based on an objective understanding of the laws of capitalist social relations, the application of a materialist world view towards history and social development and the perspective of the modern proletariat. Marxism is not a defined, ahistoric world-view or ideology, but a living, radical field of scientific inquiry into social change, oppression and struggle. (RAIM Glossary)

mass organization: We use "mass organization" to refer to a group of people without a specifically worked out universal ideology (such as Maoism) leading it. Membership requirements are less strict than for a cadre organization, as a mass organization's aim is to unite as many people as possible, often around a single issue.

materialism: The doctrine that matter is the basis of reality. A method of philosophic inquiry which sees material and social circumstance as paramount in shaping individual and social consciousness. Materialism developed in opposition to philosophical Idealism, which saw consciousness and ideas as the force giving order to the physical world. Materialist philosophy tends to look at how the social relations of production in a society give shape and form to the society and its members, i.e. how production and economic activity tend to determine laws, values, ideology, forms of government, etc.

As Lenin succinctly explained: "things exist outside us. Our perceptions and ideas are their images. Verification of these images, differentiation between true and false images, is given by practice." (V.I. Lenin, Materialism and Empirio-criticism: Critical Comments on a Reactionary Philosophy, Chapter 2.2) (RAIM glossary) *see also: idealism

means of consumption: Product that is consumed directly by people, i.e. food, clothing and daily commodities (Sector II). (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 6)

means of production: The tools humyns use to transform nature to meet their needs. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , page 5)

metaphysics: "beyond nature or the physical world", the metaphysical worldview starts from basic principles, or ideas in peoples' heads as the foundation for how things are in real life. As opposed to the dialectical worldview, that sees things in a constant state of change, metaphysics sees things in a stable state always abiding by these principles or laws for all time; for example, there is a metaphysical view that humyn nature is to be greedy, while the dialectician recognizes greed as a characteristic of humyns in a given time and place (Materialism and Empirio-Criticism: Critical Comments on a Reactionary Philosophy by Lenin, V.I. ) *see also: idealism, dialectics

militant: Aggressively active in the service of a cause. (Labor Aristocracy, Mass Base of Social Democracy by Edwards, H.W. , Chapter XXI)

militarism: The development and process of increasing military aggression as part of capitalist oppression. An economic system that centers around development of a country's military forces. It includes war-mongering or the advocacy of war or actual carrying out of war or its preparations. Militarism is inherent to imperialism because of 1) the need to use force to exploit other nations' labor and natural resources; 2) war is a solution to imperialism's perennial crisis of overproduction; 3) it falsely increases demand, thereby circulating capital that has become over-concentrated in the imperialist core. Oppressed nations can engage in militarism in a flawed effort to advance their economic systems as well. *see also: overproduction

mode of production: Unity of the productive forces and the relations of production; an economic system such as feudalism, capitalism or socialism. *see also: productive forces, production relations

monetary exchange: The trade of money in one country's currency for another country's currency. Exchange rates roughly indicate the "strength" of a capitalist economy. By manipulating the currencies of their neo-colonies, and by virtue of the strength of their home currencies alone, imperialist nations exploit profits from the Third World via unequal exchange. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 10)

monism: The belief that there is one reality or basis of all phenomena; dialectical materialists are monists. (Dictionary of Philosophy by Peter A. Angeles) *see also: dualism

monopoly: complete control of the supply of goods or services in a specific market. This results in a market in which there is only one seller of a commodity from which others can buy goods/services.

monopsony: a market form in which only one buyer faces many sellers, creating an advantageous situation for the buyer in a competitive capitalist market *see also: monopoly

Narodism: In Russia in the later 1800s a movement arose to defend the traditional peasant life that called itself Russian Narodniks. This group often used revolutionary and socialist language to idealize peasant life while attacking the landlords who once ruled over the peasants. This peasant-focused ideology was essentially bourgeois revolutionary in character, and was criticized by Lenin near the turn of the century.

nation: "a nation is a historically evolved, stable community of language, territory, economic life, and psychological make up manifested in a community of culture." - J.V. Stalin

Nation is the predominant form of organization of humyn beings in the era of imperialism. As national markets and borders became important to the economic destiny of a region, the nation-states of Europe took form first. For the exploited, the national project is taken up in resistance to imperialism because it hinders their economic development. (Marxism and the National Question by Stalin, J.V. )

national income: The total social product produced by the laborers of the material production branches in a country during a given period of time (usually a year) minus the depreciation of the means of production. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 20)

national liberation: The intellectual, political, social and military movement of oppressed nations to gain autonomy from their oppressors. (RAIM glossary)

national minority: A group of people from a nation residing in the territory of another nation. For instance Filipinos living within U.$. borders are still a part of the Filipino nation as a whole and have not developed into a distinct nation separate from the Philippines. As a result they are part of the Filipino national liberation struggle. This is in contrast with New Afrikans in the U.$. who have formed a distinct nation, no longer a part of the nations from which they came. (Marxism and the National Question by Stalin, J.V. ) *see also: nation

national oppression: The exercise of power by one national group over another. The contradiction that defines the economic system of imperialism is that between the oppressor nations and the oppressed nations. This oppression comes about primarily as a means of one nation to exploit value from another.

nationalism: an ideology based around the identity of a nation; the character of this ideology will depend on the position of that nation in the global economic system and the political development of the people of that nation; nationalism has been part of both the most oppressive and most liberatory social movements in the era of imperialism *see also: revolutionary nationalism, nation, cultural nationalism

neo-colonialism: A covert form of colonialism, in which the colonizing countries transfer wealth from the colonized countries without explicitly taking over political control of the subjugated nations. (MIM Notes 115, p. 4) *see also: colonialism

New Afrikan: Our Afrikan ancestors landed on these shores as Ashanti, Ibo, Fula, Moors, etc. We didn't have a collective identity, language, culture, tradition, etc. But thru our collective oppression and our collective resistance to that oppression, we developed a collective language, culture, and so on in the southern part of what is now known as the U$A. We developed into a "new" Afrikan people. A people who are separate and distinct from all other people on planet Earth. Thus, we claim the national identity of New Afrikan and claim as our national territory the states Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina. Our national territory has been named the Republic of New Afrika.

We uphold the usage of New Afrikan as opposed to "Black" and "African-American." "Black" implies the fictitious categorization of "race." African-American implies that we have fully integrated into this country as full citizens. *see also: nation

New Democracy: A post revolutionary government which is led by the proletariat and unites the popular classes of oppressed and exploited nations with the aim of achieving national unity and autonomy against imperialist exploitation and building the prerequisites for socialism and communism.

Land is central to the New Democractic phase. In semi-feudal societies, the popular classes along with the national bourgeoisie destroy the feudal powers and redistribute land more democratically, unleashing the productive forces of the nation. In all cases, the oppressed nation establishes the integrity of its territory free of imperialist occupation during the New Democratic phase.

Mao Zedong distinguished New Democracy from the old bourgeois democratic revolutions that overthrew feudal systems in parts of Europe. In a world dominated by imperialism the bourgeoisie is no longer a progressive force that can lead a successful revolutionary transformation of the economic substructure of society. That is why New Democracy requires proletarian leadership in a united front with all anti-imperialist classes, including the national bourgeoisie. (RAIM glossary)

nihilism: The position that there are no standards, that knowledge is worthless, that all actions, thought and ethical and metaphysical conjecture is baseless and empty. (Chris Rohmann, A World of Ideas, New York: Ballantine, 1999)

non-sequitur: Latin for "doesn't follow." An argument that makes a conclusion that doesn't follow from the premises given. For example, "There is so much beauty in nature. There must be a God." *see also: logical fallacies

opportunism: in the process of political struggle we find unprincipled people sometimes taking up the cause of communism. In general this is the policy and practice of subordinating the real interests of the proletarian revolutionary movement to that of one's sect or oneself.

"Right opportunism" underestimates what the revolutionaries can accomplish, while "ultraleft opportunism" or "left opportunism," overestimates what can be accomplished in the given conditions. On the basis of both "right opportunism" or "left opportunism" it is possible to attack the correct road, the political path that yields the fastest way out of oppression and exploitation. Opportunism and deviationism may overlap, but deviationism may be more principled but wrong about the balance of forces and the fastest road out of oppression and exploitation.

oppressed nation: Imperialism is defined by the principal contradiction between oppressed nations and oppressor nations. The oppressed nations are those whose destinies are determined by the oppressor nations, and suffer under their domination. The oppressed nations are the world's majority, roughly equivalent to the countries making up the Third World, but also including internal colonies. *see also: internal colony, oppressor nation

oppression: The exercise of power by one group over another. (MIM Theory 2/3: Gender and Revolutionary Feminism by MIM , p. 50)

oppressor nation: Imperialism is defined by the principal contradiction between oppressed nations and oppressor nations. The oppressor nations are those who control and oppress other nations for their own benefit. Oppressor nations are the dominant imperialist nations, such as Amerika, Britain, Japan, Australia, France, Germany, etc. They are the minority of the world's people. *see also: oppressed nation, principal contradiction

organic composition of capital: The proportion of constant capital to variable capital (c:v) within a capitalist enterprise. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 5) *see also: constant capital

overdetermination: The idea that social processes are all connected and that all of the aspects of society cause each other, with none as the most important. (MIM Theory 2/3: Gender and Revolutionary Feminism by MIM , p. 81) *see also: principal contradiction

overproduction: The true origin of capitalist crisis. The anarchy of production under capitalism combined with the capitalist's competitive drive for profit leads to an overabundance of some products. These products cannot be sold because workers do not have have enough money to buy them, even though they may need these products. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 8) *see also: underconsumption, anarchy of production

parasitism: Living off of the products and work of others. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 11)

patriarchy: the manifestation and institutionalization of male dominance over wimmin and children in the family and the extension of male dominance over wimmin in society in general; it implies that men hold power in all the important institutions of society and that wimmin are deprived of access to such power (The Creation of Patriarchy by Gerda Lerner, p.239, Appendix)

peasantry: The class of people who labor on the land and possess their means of production: tools and the land itself. A defining characteristic of the peasantry is that it must pay rent or a tribute to maintain its possession of the land. Members of this class are peasants. (A Dictionary of Marxist Thought by Tom Bottomore)

petty bourgeoisie: Generally the petty bourgeoisie is the group between the bourgeoisie and the working class, sometimes called the "middle class." They are economically self-supporting or even earning more than they consume for their own support. This class includes those who own their own means of production and work for themselves. They cannot generate sufficient surplus value from exploitation of others to live without working themselves, so they are not primarily exploiters, unlike the bourgeoisie. Two sub-groups:

1. Owners of Capital (small businesses, real estate, stocks, etc.): Owns their own business or has means to or has ability to get loan to start a small business. The pure petty bourgeois class is separated from the labor aristocracy by their ownership of wealth.

2. Labor Aristocracy: Unlike the traditional petty bourgeoisie, they do not own their own means of production and so must work for others. But unlike the proletariat and semi-proletariat the labor aristocracy in the First World earn more than the value of their labor and therefore have interests that fall in the bourgeois camp allying with imperialism.

Also written petit-bourgeoisie. (MIM Theory 1: A White Proletariat? by MIM , p. 5) *see also: labor aristocracy

phenomenon: Any observable fact or event; includes matter and ideas. Every phenomenon is a product of a subject (observing) and an object (appearing). (plural is phenomena) (The Nature of Brain Work by Joseph Dietzgen, p. 21)

philosophy: World outlook; how one perceives, understands and interprets life in general. Method of understanding the world, history, contradictions and the development of things. (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary) *see also: materialism, idealism

pig: One who oppresses the people in the name of the state; "an ill-natured beast who has no respect for law and order." (The Black Panther)

plutocracy: A government ruled by the wealthy.

poison the well: Providing unfavorable information about a persyn to try to discredit their argument or influence your judgment. *see also: logical fallacies

police socialism: Not really socialism at all but a ruse used by police agents under the auspice of the Tsar in order to manipulate and divert the rising tide of revolution.

political economy: The materialist dialectic study of production relations (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , page 4)

political error: all Maoists make errors. Those who think they do not are probably not doing anything and counting that as not making an error. Another common cause of believing one makes no errors is Christianity or other forms of metaphysics. Those who take action realize that they are going to make errors. Our best leaders simply make the fewest. (MIM FAQ) *see also: opportunism, deviation, revisionism

positivism: The belief that scientific principles are essential to all studies, in particular that of society; a statement is meaningful if and only if it is, at least in principle, empirically verifiable. (Peter A. Angeles. Dictionary of Philosophy.)

post-hoc ergo propter hoc: This is arguing that because something happens after something else, the first caused the second. Latin for "after this, therefore because of this," and post-hoc for short. *see also: logical fallacies

post-modernism: A trend in academia and teaching which says there is no truth and everything is relative; post-modernism opposes a scientific approach to humyn society.

power: in the context of liberation struggles this term means the ability of people to define a phenomenon and make it act in a desired manner. (Interview with Huey Newton 1968) *see also: self-determination

pragmatism: The philosophy of being practical without regard for larger issues. Pragmatism calls on its participants to grope through experience for the correct course of action. Sometimes appears as not "thinking outside the box" because one ignores greater principles and scientific knowledge. Can also be seen as the error that is opposite of idealism, which puts political ideals in place of real world conditions and possibilities. (MIM Theory 10: Labor Aristocracy by MIM , p. 70) *see also: empiricism, idealism

Primitive Accumulation: The process by which large swathes of people are violently disposed of their traditional means of production in service to capital. It is generally assumed that the origins of capitalism lie in England and were brought about through the violent concentration of capital through domestic policies of dispossession and concentration of land (which also had the effect of creating from the peasantry a domestic class of ‘free’ laborers dependent of working for a wage) and returns on slave trade (which had the effect of creating import markets of raw materials and export markets for finished goods). This initial concentration of land and wealth were invested into factories and new technologies, increasing the productivity and hence profitability of the latter mode of production. Today, primitive accumulation still occurs, whereas people are physically or socially dispossessed to make way for the further expansion of monopoly capital. (RAIM glossary)

principal contradiction: The highest priority contradiction that communists must focus their energy on for a long period of time - a strategic period. The concept of the principal contradiction comes from dialectical materialism, which says that everything can be divided into two opposing forces. These contradictions are the basis for any changes that thing goes through. Every phenomenon or problem has a principal contradiction within it. Defining the principal contradiction in humyn society is a crucial step in transforming it.

The principal contradiction in the world today is between the imperialist countries and the countries they oppress and exploit. Based on this fact, we say the principal task is to build public opinion against imperialism and to build institutions of the oppressed that are independent of imperialism, in order to seize power from the imperialists. *see also: dialectics

production relations: Mutual relationships formed in the process of providing food, clothes, and shelter for ourselves as a species. In class society, these relationships are ultimately reflected in class relationships. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , page 4)

productive forces: The power which humyns use to transform nature for their use, includes tools (means of production) and humyns (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , page 5)

Proletarian Feminism: Feminism which preferences the revolutionary struggle of the oppressed and exploited masses as the means of abolishing patriarchy. (RAIM glossary)

proletarian internationalism: Today, there are two kinds of internationalism, bourgeois internationalism and proletarian internationalism. In the proletarian internationalist view, exploitation inevitably leads to violent conflict, so peace amongst nations depends on a global view not defending private property.

"There is one, and only one, kind of real internationalism, and that is -- working whole-heartedly for the development of the revolutionary movement and the revolutionary struggle in one's own country, and supporting (by propaganda, sympathy, and material aid) this struggle, this, and only this, line, in every country without exception."

- V.I. Lenin, about World War I in "The Tasks of the Proletariat in Our Revolution" (MIM FAQ: What is Internationalism?) *see also: bourgeois internationalism, internationalism

proletarian morality: What the proletariat determines to be right and wrong, good and bad. A thing is good or bad depending on whether it serves humyn need. In class society, different classes often have opposing interests, therefore what is right to one class is wrong to another. Pacifists apply an idealist form of morality by saying that violence is never justified. Similarly, anarchists denounce hierarchy and oppression in the hands of the oppressed, even if used as tools to destroy hierarchy and oppression in the bigger picture. Proletarian leadership must abide by proletarian morality in order to maintain the active support of those they are leading to action. *see also: proletariat

proletariat: The group of people who have nothing to sell but their labor power for their subsistence. The proletariat does not draw any profit from any kind of capital because they have none. There are several groups that fall within the proletariat:
1. The working proletariat are exploited by others who make a profit off of their labor.
2. The non-working proletariat make up the reserve army of the proletariat. In current times this group is usually temporarily unemployed and seeking employment. The long-term unemployed usually fall into the lumpen-proletariat.
3. The lumpen-proletariat, a group of people who are unable to sell their labor power in the long term and so end up living as parasites on other proletarians. This group is found in the Third World, and is distinct from the First World lumpen.

Proletarians are propertyless and thus have "nothing to lose but their chains." The proletariat is the least conservative element of society. (MIM Theory 1: A White Proletariat? by MIM , p. 5) *see also: lumpen-proletariat

pseudo-feminism: an ideology that promotes the interests of biological wimmin of the First World while claiming to represent the interests of the gender oppressed; the ideology of the gender aristocracy, which shares in male privilege rather than challenging it *see also: gender aristocracy

psychogenetic fallacy: Arguing that if someone has psychological motivations for putting forth an argument, then h's biased, so h argument must be wrong. This is used to create a false dichotomy between "activists" and "regular people." The opposite is where someone being interviewed has more credibility if they are just a "working mom" or "guy on the street" than part of an organization with clear goals, even if the persyn has less knowledge of the subject. *see also: logical fallacies

racism: MIM observes scientifically that race does not exist and that what really happens in the United States is national oppression, not racial oppression. "Racism" does exist as an element of the superstructure of society, that is to say the ideas and culture, but "racism" is a product of national oppression, including the exploitation and enslavement of various nations by others. Racism can only be disguised, never eliminated, by propagating politically correct attitudes, because racism is just a justification for exploitation and enslavement. To rid the world of this exploitation and enslavement, and hence racism, requires armed struggle against the imperialists.

For more on racism's inherent presence in capitalism, see "Labor Aristocracy: Mass Base for Social Democracy" by H.W. Edwards (MIM Theory 1: A White Proletariat? by MIM , Appendix 3)

rate of profit: s/(c+v), which stands for surplus value divided by the sum of constant capital and variable capital (labor) involved in production of a commodity. The capitalist uses rate of profit instead of rate of surplus value to conceal the fact that all value comes from the worker. However, rate of profit is also relevant to the capitalist in that his return on capital investment declines as the rate of profit declines due to the development of the mode of production under capitalism. The rate of profit declines, even if the rate of surplus value increases as production becomes more capital intensive with advanced technology. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 7) *see also: rate of surplus value

rate of surplus value: s/v, which stands for surplus value divided by the value of labor power. In other words the amount of value the capitalist takes from the worker over the amount he allows the worker to keep. *see also: rate of profit

Raza: the Spanish word for race, or people; Raza or La Raza is used as a catch-all term to describe the people of so-called "Latin America"

reactionary: Characterized by tendencies toward backward and repressive status-quo. Those forces which oppose revolutionary change and actively work to prevent or destroy any progressive movement, country, etc. (Black Liberation Army Political Dictionary)

reductionism: The belief that complex systems can be boiled down to simple ideas; the search for an ultimate cause; an idea very similar to essentialism. Today's Trotskyists are the most consistent reductionists, because they boil down national and gender oppression to class. (MIM Theory 2/3: Gender and Revolutionary Feminism by MIM , p.81)

reformism: Working within the current system to make changes without fundamentally changing the current system through revolution.

relative surplus population: Unique to capitalism, there is always a portion of the population excluded from production as a result of capital accumulation. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 5)

relativism: the belief that everything is a matter of opinion, or relative to the individual's perspective; a philosophy that says we can only know relative truths and not absolute truths (Materialism and Empirio-Criticism: Critical Comments on a Reactionary Philosophy by Lenin, V.I. , Absolute and Rel)

remittance: Usually refers to money sent by a migrant working in one country back to family or friends in their home country. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 10)

remitted interest: Interest reaped by the imperialists via their exploitation of labor in other countries that they send back to the imperialist country for investment, distribution or consumption. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Page 187)

revisionism: Revisionism refers to political views that claim to be Marxist yet revise Marx's work fundamentally by failing to apply the scientific method of dialectical materialism. Revisionists commonly downplay class struggle, overplay the struggle to increase production and technical progress compared with political matters, don't believe imperialism is dangerous, advocate reformist means of change and don't uphold the dictatorship of the proletariat. Revisionism is bourgeois ideology, enemy politics. (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , Section 2) *see also: opportunism, political error, deviation

revolution: A complete and radical change from one social system into another. The violent and complete struggle waged by the people to rid themselves of an oppressive system of government into a more progressive and humane society. This includes not only the political structure, but also, the philosophy and ideology, mode of production, and relations of production as well as the social mentality and outlook of society. (Black Liberation Army Political Dictioanry)

revolutionary nationalism: an ideology that sees the solution to the plight of the oppressed nation in liberating itself from the global imperialist system to attain self-determination; revolutionary nationalists see the struggle of the nation as primary; they may or may not be communists *see also: cultural nationalism, integrationism

right wing of white nationalism: The right wing of white nationalism prioritizes the preservation of Western culture and white racial purity. They are unwilling to integrate other nationalities into the imperialist countries, even to preserve the system that they benefit from. (The real lessons of the Chicano Moratorium and the high treason) *see also: left wing of white nationalism, white nationalism

rightism: In general, rightists tend to be too conservative. A rightist is someone who tends to make everything a matter of tactics. Rightists don't care about long-term goals or plans. (note: Rightism and Ultra-leftism are both errors WITHIN the revolutionary movement. We are not talking about the "right" and "left" wings of the Amerikan government commonly referred to in the bourgeois press.) (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , p.46) *see also: ultra-leftism

rural prefect: A high raking official or magistrate in the countryside

Second International: (1889-1916) The Second International differed from the First in that it was made up of active European political parties and it excluded anarchists. At the outbreak of the First World War, the renegades of the Second International, raising the banner of "defense of the fatherland," supported the war of aggression launched by the imperialists of their own countries and degenerated into social-chauvinists. (Labor Aristocracy, Mass Base of Social Democracy by Edwards, H.W. , Chapter XXIX) *see also: Comintern

sectarianism: The tendency to place the interest of one's particular organization above that of the revolutionary struggle.

self-determination: In reference to oppressed nations and people, the principle of or ability to choose the course of future development free of reactionary, outside interference. (RAIM glossary)

semi-colony: An oppressed nation that is colonized by an oppressor nation, but does not exhibit all of the characteristics of a traditional colony. Within the United $tates we speak of the internal semi-colonies of New Afrika, Boricua, Aztlán and various First Nations. As imperialism has advanced, the Amerikans no longer depend on these nations as sources of new wealth as they do the Third World nations that we would call colonies, or, most likely, neo-colonies. *see also: neo-colonialism, internal colony, colonialism

semi-proletariat: Portions of the semi-proletariat are similar to the petty-bourgeoisie in that both groups are gaining material benefit from ownership of some capital. These semi-proletarians are distinguished from the petty-bourgeoisie in that they work for themselves, but earn income similar to exploited workers. In the Third World this includes semi-owner peasants, street vendors, and small handicrafts workers. In the First World we see those self-employed in small businesses in the ghetto, barrio or reservation (i.e. cutting hair in their home).

The semi-proletariat also includes portions of the proletariat who must sell their labor to survive but work outside of the productive sector. These workers are exploited by others, unable to earn the value of their labor. These non-productive workers mostly exist in the Third World as shop assistants, poor peasants on semi-feudal farms, technicians, and civil servants. The non-productive sector in the First World is dominated by petty-bourgeois labor aristocrats, so instead we draw the line at the international average value of labor.

[Full time minimum wage workers in the U.$. today are above this level and so not part of the semi-proletariat. The international average value of labor has been conservatively estimated around $5 per hour in 2014. Those only earning enough to average $5/hour or less in a 40 hour work week, outside of the industrial proletariat, would be representative of those who do not own their own capital, do not work in production, and so would be included in the semi-proletariat.] *see also: proletariat

settler: Foreign invader who establishes permanent residence in an occupied land.

simple reproduction: The capitalist reinvests the same amount of capital each cycle or turnover of capital, consuming the surplus value exploited from the workers. In real life, such a practice would lead to the capitalist being out-competed by expanding enterprises. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 5) *see also: expanded reproduction

slippery slope: The assumption that accepting one thing will lead to increasing undesirable other things. "If we fight for this reform then we're going to have to compromise with the state. Do you want to be holding hands, singing and dancing with Barack Obama?" *see also: logical fallacies

social capital: Sum of all individual capital in the world. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 6)

social democracy: The social movement to improve or maintain conditions of the broad parasitic classes. The economic base of social democracy is the labor aristocracy. An organization or movement does not need to be openly (or even consciously) social democratic be considered so. Social democracy is the principal social (not military) prop of imperialism, ensuring superprofits flow from the exploited countries to the exploiter countries. (Labor Aristocracy, Mass Base of Social Democracy by Edwards, H.W. , Chapter II)

social imperialism: Socialism in name but imperialism in substance (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Page 199) *see also: socialism

social product: Sum of everything humyns have produced in the world, means of production + means of consumption. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 6)

socialism: When Maoists use the term socialism we are referring to the transition stage between the capitalist mode of production and communism. This involves organizing society with the goal of meeting people's needs, not making profit. History shows that a dictatorship of the proletariat (the people instead of the capitalists) is necessary to make socialism work and maintain democracy in a socialist society. (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , Section 2) *see also: dictatorship of the proletariat

socially necessary labor: The average labor time required for producing a use value under normal conditions of production with average skilled laborers. Basically, the average labor required to create a product. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 3&4)

Stalinists: "Stalinists" uphold Joseph Stalin and do not believe anybody advanced Marxism-Leninism after Lenin. They can be difficult to separate from Hoxhaites and sometimes Brezhnevites. Since Stalin was dialectical, we do not believe it is possible to defend him without advancing to Maoism, but here we honor what people say they are but in quotes. Some or most people calling themselves "Marxist-Leninist" defend Stalin and in fact most Stalin-defenders do not call themselves "Stalinist," but we include them here anyway for upholding Stalin as the last word. (What's Your Line? by MIM)

state: Social institution through which a class or classes legitimize and maintain their rule over others.

From Engels: “The state is, therefore, by no means a power forced on society from without; just as little is it 'the reality of the ethical idea', 'the image and reality of reason', as Hegel maintains. Rather, it is a product of society at a certain stage of development; it is the admission that this society has become entangled in an insoluble contradiction with itself, that it has split into irreconcilable antagonisms which it is powerless to dispel. But in order that these antagonisms, these classes with conflicting economic interests, might not consume themselves and society in fruitless struggle, it became necessary to have a power, seemingly standing above society, that would alleviate the conflict and keep it within the bounds of 'order'; and this power, arisen out of society but placing itself above it, and alienating itself more and more from it, is the state." (The Origin of Family, Private Property and the State, p.177-78, sixth edition) (The State and Revolution by Lenin, V.I. )

state capitalism: Under state capitalism, the state nominally owns the means of production, but production is organized around the profitability of individual enterprises or sectors, not the needs of the people. The Soviet Union became state capitalist under Khrushchev, and China became state capitalist under Deng. In both cases, a new bourgeoisie developed within the state apparatus and the Communist Party itself.

Also known as "state monopoly capitalism." (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Ch 9&10, p200)

status-quo: The present existing state of affairs; keeping things just as they are.

strategic confidence: The belief that the proletarian forces will win based on a concrete analysis of society. Our strategic confidence comes from an analysis of the contradictions within imperialism, which are bringing about its decay and destruction. As a minority within the united $tates, the oppressed and progressive forces have a hard time developing strategic confidence when focused narrowly on local events and struggles. Therefore, internationalism is a must for the oppressed nations in the united $tates to obtain liberation from imperialism, which threatens to further immiserate and oppress a growing segment of society as crisis ensues and fascism knocks on the door.

strategy: Long-term plans to achieve various goals on the way to communism. For every stage in the revolutionary struggle, there is a strategy. (MIM Theory 5: Diet For a Small Red Planet by MIM , p. 50) *see also: tactics, line

straw man argument: Attempts to counter a position by attacking a different position -- usually one that is easier to counter. The arguer invents a caricature of eir opponent's position -- a "straw man" -- that is easily refuted, but not the position that eir opponent actually holds. *see also: logical fallacies

sub-reformism: The belief that progress (toward communism) can be achieved through the modification of individual behavior without changing society as a whole.

subjectivism: The belief that what one feels or likes is true or supreme. (Combating subjectivism in all arenas, from cigarettes & drugs to) *see also: logical fallacies

superexploitation: A worker who receives wages less than the value of her/his labor power is superexploited. This means the worker is paid less than what is necessary for subsistence. (MIM Theory 1: A White Proletariat? by MIM , p. 5) *see also: labor power

superimperialism: An incorrect concept fabricated by Kautsky just before the First World War that suggests imperialism will reach a stage where the capitalists will peacefully cooperate to exploit the world and permanent peace would emerge. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 9)

superprofits: These are profits derived from workers paid less than what is necessary for their subsistence -- workers that are superexploited. (MIM Theory 1: A White Proletariat? by MIM , p. 5) *see also: exploitation

superstructure: Includes national government, army, law, and other political systems and their corresponding ideological forms, such as philosophy, literature, and fine arts. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , page 8)

surplus value: the difference between the value of work done and the wages paid for that work; this is the original source of all profits. Note that only productive labor produces value/surplus value.

suzerain: A dominant country/nation that controls another nation but allows some limited domestic autonomy. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 9)

tactics: Short-term plans, some of which may be used again and again in slightly different circumstances. Tactics are short term and flexible based on day-to-day changes in the situation. (MIM Theory 5: Diet For a Small Red Planet by MIM , p 50) *see also: strategy, line

teleological argument: To argue from final consequences, reversing cause and effect. For example, rather than saying life developed on Earth because of all the various conditions necessary for life developing here first, the teleological argument would be that the planet was designed to support life as proven by all the unlikely factors that coincide here. *see also: logical fallacies

terrorism: The use of violence or threats of harm against a civilian population for social, political or economic ends.

the fallacy fallacy: The argument that a conclusion is false because a persyn taking that position uses a logical fallacy. False logic does not disprove the conclusion. This can be used by those with more knowledge on a subject to dismiss another's position just because they do not have the knowledge to argue it well. *see also: logical fallacies

theory: a scientific idea that uses many observations and has much experimental evidence; can be applied to unrelated facts and new relationships; flexible enough to be modified if new data/evidence introduced *see also: law (scientific), hypothesis

Third International: see Comintern (Labor Aristocracy, Mass Base of Social Democracy by Edwards, H.W. , Chapter XXIX) *see also: Comintern

Third World: The portion of the geographic-social world subjected to imperialist exploitation by the First World. (RAIM Glossary)

totalitarianism: A term used mostly by bourgeois liberals in a reactionary manner to draw parallels between socialism and fascism. Socialism is the conscious dictatorship of the proletariat, where the totality of society is structured around serving the people. Fascism is the conscious dictatorship of the imperialist class, where the totality of society is manipulated to serve profits at all costs. Under bourgeois democracy the institutions, ideas, norms and tastes of society are determined by corporations which act individually in the interests of their own profits.

Trotskyists: Supporters of Leon Trotsky, the Menshevik leader who opposed V.I. Lenin until the Soviet victory in 1917. Trotsky broke with Stalin over the feasibility of socialism in one country which Trotsky said was impossible. Orthodox Trots believe that the working classes of the advanced capitalist countries are the best vehicle for worldwide revolution and downplay the anti-feudal and anti-imperialist struggles of the oppressed nations. (On Trotskyism; Problems of theory and history by Mavrakis, Kostas MIM. What's Your Line?)

tu quoque: To justify wrong action because someone else does it. For example, the teenager who argues to h parents, "what do you mean I can't smoke? You smoke, you hypocrite!" The teenager is wrong, and the parent is correctly stating: "I know I have had my subjective feelings, my very emotions and psychology conditioned by the cigarette companies and I know I am addicted. However, I know that in a better world it would not be that way." *see also: logical fallacies

turnover of capital: The cycle from money capital to production capital to commercial capital and back to money capital. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 6)

turnover period of capital: Production time + circulation time for one full cycle of a capitalist's capital, or the time it takes for the turnover of capital within an enterprise. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 6) *see also: turnover of capital

Turtle Island: In the language of many northeastern Indigenous Nations, Turtle Island is used to refer to both the western hemisphere as a whole, as well as more specifically to refer to the northern land mass of the continent. We generally use the term "occupied Turtle Island" to refer to the territories of the United States and Canada, which are occupied by a European settler majority, while using "Turtle Island" to mean all of the Americas, which remain dominated by U.$. imperialism today.

ultra-leftism: Ultra-leftists will tend to judge real-world revolutionaries in the light of principles that only Jesus/Moses/Muhammad-type figures could implement. Ultra-leftism thus smacks of religion/idealism. The ultra-left also tends to go to extremes to achieve their objectives. (note: Rightism and Ultra-leftism are both errors WITHIN the revolutionary movement. We are not talking about the "right" and "left" wings of the Amerikan government commonly referred to in the bourgeois press.) (Fundamental Political Line of the Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons by MIM(Prisons) , p.45) *see also: rightism

underconsumption: An incorrect reason given by the bourgeoisie for capitalist crisis. They argue that if people bought more products that the crises could be avoided. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 8) *see also: overproduction

underdeveloped: modern underdevelopment expresses a particular relationship of exploitation: namely, the exploitation of one country by another. All of the countries named as ‘underdeveloped’ in the world are exploited by others; and the underdevelopment with which the world is now pre-occupied is a product of capitalist, imperialist and colonialist exploitation. African and Asian societies were developing independently until they were taken over directly or indirectly by the capitalist powers. When that happened, exploitation increased and the export of surplus ensued, depriving the societies of the benefit of their natural resources and labour.

...For economic development it is not enough to produce more goods and services. The country has to produce more of those goods and services which in turn will give rise spontaneously to future growth in the economy. For example, the food-producing sector must be flourishing so that workers would be healthy, and agriculture on the whole must be efficient so that the profits (or savings) from agriculture would stimulate industry. Heavy industry, such as the steel industry and the production of electrical power, must be present so that one is capable of making machinery for other types of industry and for agriculture. Lack of heavy industry, inadequate production of food, unscientific agriculture – those, are all characteristics of the underdeveloped economies.

It is typical of underdeveloped economies that they do not (or are not allowed to) concentrate on those sectors of the economy which in turn will generate growth and raise production to a new level altogether, and there are very few ties between one sector and another so that (say) agriculture and industry could react beneficially on each other.

Furthermore, whatever savings are made within the economy are mainly sent abroad or are frittered away in consumption rather than being redirected to productive purposes. Much of the national income which remains within the country goes to pay individuals who are not directly involved in producing wealth but only in rendering auxiliary services-civil servants, merchants, soldiers, entertainers, etc. (How Europe Underdeveloped Africa by Rodney, Walter , What is Underdev)

united front: The strategy of uniting various organizations and individuals for cooperation towards a common goal, while maintaining the independence of initiative of each organization within the united front.

Historically the most important application of this strategy has refered to uniting the popular classes for the struggle against imperialism. As Mao wrote about the united front in the war against Japan:

"To sustain a long war by long-term co-operation or, in other words, to subordinate the class struggle to the present national struggle against Japan--such is the fundamental principle of the united front. Subject to this principle, the independent character of the parties and classes and their independence and initiative within the united front should be preserved, and their essential rights should not be sacrificed to co-operation and unity, but on the contrary must be firmly upheld within certain limits." (THE QUESTION OF INDEPENDENCE AND INITIATIVE WITHIN THE UNITED FR)

unity-criticism-unity: A process implemented by revolutionary organizations to strengthen organizational unity and individual and group practice. Members of a group united on a set of principles and objectives struggle internally behind closed doors among themselves by working (practice) together, observing and analyzing each others errors and then offering constructive criticism to each other to correct errors and overcome any shortcomings in order to strengthen each other and thus advance the group towards its stated objectives.

This is a process of transforming old unities to new ones, in a continuous cycle. This is principled unity and struggle of theory and practice, which any organized body must engage in if it wishes to succeed in accomplishing its stated objectives.

unremitted interest: Interest reaped by the imperialists via their exploitation of labor in other countries which they keep in those countries to reinvest. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Page 187)

use value: The usefulness of a commodity (i.e. water is needed for drinking). (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 3)

vacillate: to shuck and jive; to waiver from one side to the other; the petty bourgeois class vacillates between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie

vanguard: The party (group or individual) with the most advanced political line.

white nationalism: An ideology that serves the interests of the white nation to the exclusion of the world's majority, marked principally by a belief that whites or Amerikans deserve more wealth and resources than other peoples. White nationalism is also defined by the denial of the existence of internal semi-colonies in settler states. *see also: left wing of white nationalism, right wing of white nationalism

womyn (wimmin): alternate spelling of woman (women) removing the word "man" ("men") to oppose seeing wimmin as derived from men; specifies wimmin as a social group/gender, not as a biologically determined group

working capital: Capital that is consumed in one cycle of turnover of capital, i.e. raw materials, wages, fuel. (Fundamentals of Political Economy by Shanghai Press , Chapter 6) *see also: constant capital